# Cura Parameters ## Quality (Layer Height) The layer height plays a crucial role in determining the print quality. For most use cases, a layer height of `0.2mm` is recommended. However, it's essential to consider the maximum and minimum layer height that can be achieved using a specific nozzle diameter. As a general rule: * Maximum layer height = `0.75` * nozzle diameter * Minimum layer height = `0.125` * nozzle diameter For instance, a 0.4mm nozzle would have a recommended layer height range of `0.05mm to 0.3mm`, while a 0.6mm nozzle would have a range of `0.075mm to 0.45mm`. Keeping these parameters in mind can help ensure successful and high-quality 3D prints. ### Initial Layer height Allowing more tolerance for the first later, especially when printing without a raft. ## Wall Wall Thickness adjusts the thickness of walls in the horizontal direction. Note that it doesn’t have an influence on the top or bottom surfaces of your print – this is controlled by the “Top/Bottom Thickness” setting. The `Wall Thickness` value should be a value that’s a multiple of the nozzle size of your printer. For example, if the nozzle size of your printer is 0.4 mm and you set a wall thickness of 1.2 mm, then the printer will essentially print three walls. In general, a wall thickness `2` times the nozzle diameter is sufficient. ### HORIZONTAL EXPANSION – COMPENSATE FOR SHRINKAGE All plastics shrink as they cool. Plastics such as PLA only shrink a little when printed, while plastics such as ABS or Nylon shrink quite a lot. When you are printing an object that needs to have good dimensional accuracy, shrinkage can be a big frustration because it can cause your print to lose its dimensional accuracy. The Horizontal Expansion setting will allow you to adjust the size of your 3D print in the X/Y dimension to compensate for the change in size that happens when the plastic shrinks as it cools. A positive Horizontal Expansion value will increase the dimensions of your model. You should use a positive value when your printed model is smaller than you expected – which is common with shrinkage. A negative Horizontal Expansion value will reduce the dimensions of your model. Use a negative value when your printed model is larger than expected. ### Initial layer expansion ## Top / Bottom Generally speaking, the top/bottom height could be 4-5 times the layer height. * Enable Ironing ## Infill Infill patterns are generated by Cura to give your 3D print internal strength and rigidity. The following patterns are available for you to choose from. Grid, Triangle, Tri-Hexagon, Cubic, Octet, Quarter Cubic, Cross, and Concentric Patterns are fully-printed on every layer. Gyroid, Cubic, Quarter Cubic, and Octet infill change with every layer to provide a more equal distribution of strength over each direction. If the part needs the model to have reasonable strength, even if you are not going to use it for mechanical purposes, then the best option is to select a 2D pattern such as Grid, Lines, or Triangles. Line infill provides the least amount of strength but does not consume a lot of material and prints fast. Grid infill consumes material and can be slow to print, but has an excellent strength-to-weight ratio. Other types of Infill can create “bulkheads” inside your model, but Gyroid does not, making it a good choice if you want to try things like filling a 3D print with epoxy resin for extra strength. It’s also quite hypnotic to watch print! Triangles offers great strength for high lateral loads, so this is a good choice when you need good wall strength for long, slender structures. If the model is going to be used for mechanical purposes, a 3D pattern such as Cubic or Tetrahedral infill is worth considering. Both of these patterns provide excellent internal support and near-isotropic mechanical properties. ### Connect infill line ### USING GRADUAL INFILL IN CURA When the infill slider is set to above 0%, an “Enable Gradual” checkbox appears. This is gradual infill, which will print low-density infill at the base of the model and gradually increase the amount of infill towards the top of the model. ## Speed “WALL SPEED” HELPS YOU IMPROVE SURFACE FINISH If you aren’t satisfied with the surface finish of the model, “Wall Speed” might be worth a try. This setting controls the speed the print head moves when printing walls. There are two separate sub-settings: “Inner Wall Speed” and “Outer Wall Speed”. The default outer wall speed for PLA is `30 mm/s`. Setting the outer wall speed a little lower than the default (try reducing in steps of 10 mm/s) can improve the surface finish of the model. Of course, decreasing the outer wall speed means that you are signing up for longer print times as well – so keep this in mind. ### Initial Layer speed Slow down inital layer speed to help the formation of the first layer adhesion. ### Minimum layer time ### Support: * Support pattern * Support Angle * Support xyz distance * Support type * Support Blocker ## Build plate adhesion ## Cooling * * Minimum Layer time